Well drilling is an engineering of rational exploitation and utilization of water resources in strata by using drilling equipment and technology.
Groundwater, on the other hand, is water that exists in cracks in the earth's crust or in gaps in the soil.
The various states of water buried below the surface are collectively referred to as groundwater.
The influence of water cut characteristics of different structures on well yield is as follows:
Clean sand and gravel sedimentary rock is the best source of water.
This kind of structure has strong water absorption, high water content and good water permeability.
Mixed layer of sand and gravel.
The sand and gravel mixture is also a water-yielding structure.
Because of the different proportions of sand, it is a secondary water-producing rock.
The lower the sand content, the higher the water yield.
Although the clay structure holds water well, it is difficult for water to move through it.
This means that the clay structure does not flood the well so it is not an aquifer.
It refers to the terrigenous clastic rocks whose grain size is 0.0625 ~2 mm and the sand accounts for more than 50% of all clastic particles.
If the clay ACTS as a cement in sandstone to hold the sand together it is a poor water-yielding rock.
It is an excellent source of water in all sedimentary rocks.
Limestone usually has large openings such as underground karst caves that contain high water content but poor water quality.
The earlier beds are dense rather than good water-yielding because they are tightly packed together.
If it's late it has spongy development it's a good source of water.
Of hard rock.
Such rocks as granite, porphyry, and other crystalline rocks are usually poor water producers.
The worst water-yielding beds are metamorphic rocks such as gneiss schist, quartzite, SLATE and soapstone.
In order to avoid the low efficiency of well drilling, the oil standard Tricone bit specification should be selected in the design of drilling diameter.
The selection of leading hole standard cone bit must be beneficial to the processing of reaming assembly cone bit in order to reduce the processing cost of bit.
The effect of drilling parameters on drilling efficiency is weight on bit.
The weight of bit should be determined according to the formation's hardness and softness. Meanwhile, the quality of bit, well bore, drilling tool, displacement, and performance of flushing fluid, equipment and power should also be considered.
Proper use of Tricone bit: select Tricone bit type to suit lithology requirements as much as possible, match bit size with drilling design, and use in order of size
In the process of using the bit, if the phenomenon of rampage occurs, the reasons should be analyzed immediately to check whether the formation changes or the borehole wall collapses.
The parameters should be analyzed and adjusted immediately. If the up-lift bit can't be drilled normally, the up-lift bit should be checked.
Analyze and judge the working condition of the drill bit in the hole.
In addition, measures should be taken to control well deviation, reduce the clearance between drilling tools and drilling holes, and play the role of full hole drilling and rigid anti-deviation.
In order to prevent deviation, centralizer and drill collar can be added on the top of the tricone bit.
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